We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Let us know in the comments below! Feel free to contact us for wildlife safaris in Africa . Thanks for sharing! Banana Bread This delicious bread is made with over-ripened bananas and can be eaten as breakfast but also as a cake with the afternoon cup of coffee. Want to see Gemsbok in the wild? Everything is very open with a very clear description of the challenges. Closing on one, or picking one out of a herd will require careful planning. I look forward to reading many more 4-fact articles! This is to dump … This happens because of the rapid inflow and outflow of air created by the gemsboks panting and therefore protects the gemsbok from … Newborn gemsboks are colored in an inconspicuous brown, blending with their environment. If you are unsure which cut you would like, please use the chart above to choose your cut. Other antelopes in the area, like springboks, employ a harem system where one dominant breeding male controls a group of females and young, and bachelor males form separate herds of their own. They use their horns as weapon for defending their territories from the attack of the predators. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. He is the top predator He is the only predator of the African elephant, giraffe, hippo and rhino. If approached by a lion, a cheetah will likely run for its life. Although the cheetah is faster, the lion is larger and stronger. Always alert with excellent eyesight, hearing, and smell, your approach will have to be carefully planned. These fights are most likely to start due to competition for resources, such as a female in estrus or a water hole. Can you think of any more reasons that set them apart? Small fast animals, such as Cape hares, make up their diet as well. Where are the Mountain Gorillas in Uganda? The calves have got a camouflaging brown color and normally it does not develop black and white strip in face unless it exercises out some level of maturity before joining the herds. Do you want me to write a book about gemsbok? Gemsboks are grass-eaters(herbivores) and lions are meat-eaters(carnivores). Like all other cats they are carnivores i.e. Activity at dawn and dusk allow for the consumption of the … They are mainly desert-dwelling and do not depend on drinking water to supply their physiological needs. The Kalahari lion is lighter and males have … It is important to know that the Gemsbok can kill lions. This is most notable in the fact that both males and females have horns, though the male’s are a little bit shorter and thicker. Typical cheetah diet consists mainly of gazelles, especially Thomson's gazelles. Ladies and Gentlemen. The … Gemsbok have excellent eyesight, hearing and sense of smell. Your email address will not be published. They can last without drinking water for a long time. This is one of the tough antelope - the .270 … I have a whole new respect for the Gemsbok. This antelope’s stark striping makes it very stately looking indeed. The gemsbok has horns which have a length of 120cm long and the female are narrower than the male. The gemsbok has horns which have a length of 120cm long and the female are … Their scat must be fascinating…. They … This is quite different from most antelope species whose young travel with the herd almost immediately. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. These animals are mainly grazers but will browse on bushes and shrubs if there is no grass available. This is quite unusual among ungulates to be both a grazer (grass-eater) and a browser (leaf & twig-eater). The Bachelor males are found of forming their own separate territory. The Gemsboks has got a low metabolism which allows the animal to survive for long time without taking water. Gemsbok live in herds of about 10–40 animals, which consist of a dominant male, a few nondominant males, and females. How do they lower their body temperatures? They eat meat and prey on animals such as Cape buffalo, wildebeest, zebras, warthogs, wild boar, nilgai and several deer species. Gemsboks are herbivores and grazers and consume mainly tough dry grasses, supplemented with foliage. Their black and white face marking won’t appear until it is ready to join the herd with the mother. Leaves are Their Best Friends, Perhaps! What Do Snails Eat? What Do Crickets Eat? The in the Gemsbok territory, only one dominant male will control all the females plus its younger calves. This has allowed them to better survive in vast empty spaces where finding mates can be a serious challenge. Do siblings recognise each other and will they mate with them? And to top it off, they tend to graze in early morning or late evening when the grasses have the highest moisture content collected from dew. You are also welcome to contact us if you need some advice. They eat coarse grasses and browse from thorny shrubs. When planning your safari in Africa, you can include the Gemsbok on you interested wildlife list you would love to see on your safari. The gemsbok, or oryx, is a real treat to observe. This animal is quite adaptive and feeds on a wide variety of diet as it can eat fruits, invertebrates and also feed on other big animals like a rabbit and deer. What do Northwest African cheetahs eat? They are characterized by several visual features: long, slim and spiral horns; a black face with white markings over the eyes and muzzle; a grey-brown coat with black markings on the upp… For more information see our privacy page. *This article may contain affiliate links. Hi theres a 6mnths male hand raised one for sale as well as a female – to feed this beautiful Gemsbok by hand is an experience to anyone. ... Others like the Gemsbok do not sweat … The Bushmen of the Kalahari were hunter/gatherers. It would certainly be interesting to write a book about these creatures, but I think for now many of the ‘facts’ frequently touted by guides are not scientific facts, and there remains a lot to learn about these creatures. 5 interesting facts about Gemsbok – Also known as Oryx Gazelle, the Gemsbok is fascinating and powerful animal found in southern part of east Africa related to the Oryx with in the Kalahari region. When no shade is available or when it needs to graze, the animal will take care to keep the smallest part of his body turned to the sun and the biggest part to the breeze. These are a few reasons why the Gemsbok is the king of the Kalahari antelopes. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Gemsbok typically feed in early morning and late afternoon and sometimes on moonlit nights when the moisture content in the plants is higher. We receive a small percentage of sales made through them at no extra cost to the reader. Diet and Nutrition Arabian oryx are herbovires, they eat grasses and herbs, as well as roots and tubers. avoiding the midday sun. The babies look very similar to a springbok. Although some superficial similarities in appearance (especially in the facial pattern) are noticed, the chamois and the oryx are not closely related. They feed on the desert melons which give them enough moisture which helps them during the tough times of the drought. In desert areas they consume thick leaved plants, wild melons, as well as roots and tubers they … The male rank within these groups is maintained with sparring contests that may escalate into fights. the ability to raise body temperature from 35.7C to 45C before beginning evaporative cooling (by sweating and nasal panting). The body is fawn-grey with a black … Must of been walking around with my head in the trees. Cheetahs do not eat lions. A defined pattern of black markings that contrast with their white face and fawn-colored … Here's a look at the kind of food that they love to eat. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information. In my opinion, the Gemsbok (Oryx gazella) is one of the world’s most handsome antelope species. This open country will demand one of the flat shooting rifle and scope combinations. A Cheetah can eat about 10 kg of meat per day. Gemsbok cows isolate themselves from the herd before calving. Animals That Start With X: A List of All the Animals Beginning with X, Animals That Start With U: Over 130 Animals, Photos, Photo: Jack Rabbit, Antelope Island, Utah, Fattail Scorpion Facts: Identification, Biology, Venom, A Personal Wishlist of Campsites in Zambia, Guide to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, South African Owls, a Guide to the Owl Species Found in South Africa. But its appearance is not the only thing that makes this creature special. This is why we always have our African wildlife books with us. The social structure of the gemsbok sets them apart from most other antelope species. The Gemsbok herds are one of the ionic wildlife that has adopted the arid regions. Gemsbok live in mixed groups of males and females unlike other antelope species. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. What to expect on your Uganda Gorilla Trek, How Your Trek Saves the Mountain Gorillas, 5 Days Luxury Gorilla and Wildlife Safari, https://www.bwindiugandagorillatrekking.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/gemsbok-facts.jpg, https://www.bwindiugandagorillatrekking.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Bwindi-logo.png, © Copyright - Bwindi Uganda Gorilla Trekking, how do gemsbok adapt to their environment. Hunting gemsbok requires a good pair of boots, as you are apt to cover a lot of country. The most distinctive features of this heavily built antelope are its long, rapier-shaped horns and striking black and white facial markings. They feed on the desert melons which give them enough moisture which helps them during the tough times of the drought. Gemsbok retreat, whenever possible, to the shades of trees to avoid overheating. Like many animals in desert areas, gemsbok are very adept at surviving without water for … The Gemsbok is aclass 8 antelope. Choose Your Cuts. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Read on to learn four fascinating facts about the Gemsbok. (Some plants increase their water content by 25 to 40 percent during these hours.). They can reach running speeds of up to 60 km/h (37 mph). Juicy roots, tubers and bulbs are also a source of moisture which gemsbok dig out of the ground. The overheating is averted by the grillwork of blood vessels of the nose where blood passes to go the brain before it is circulated and cooled. Oryx typically feed in early morning and late afternoon and sometimes on moonlit nights. In desert areas they consume thick leaved plants, wild melons, as well as roots and tubers they dig out of the ground. They are large antelopes with long, spear-like horns — with the Gemsbok (Oryx gazella) being the largest of the oryx species. East African oryx live in semidesert and steppes, where they eat grasses, leaves, fruit and buds. Gemsbok, on the other hand, form mixed herds of both males and females. Oryx, also known as Gemsbok in South Africa is commonly found roaming the dunes and plains of Namibia. Gemsbok need 3 liters of water per 100 kg of body weight per day. Diet - Herbivores. The Oryx diet consists mainly of coarse grasses, but they also browse from thorny shrubs. The meat tastes quite similar to beef but obviously leaner and just as juicy and succulent. A .270 caliber rifle is the minimum for hunting gemsbok in Africa. It is built like a horse, striped like a race car, has two incredibly long sharp horns like the one on a unicorn’s head, and its face is painted with a stunning black and white pattern. Gemsboks are dry-region roughage eaters, with a great capacity to digest fibre. and very, very dry . eat meat but there are some specific animals which form part of … The gemsbok is one of the most perfectly desert-adapted large mammals. After giving birth, a mother gemsbok hides her calf  for about 3 to 6 weeks. And the legend about hitting rocks (why would anyone do that anyway) thrown at them with their horns and fighting off lions? Desert dwellers can eat dry grass, but prefer green grasses. Choose Your Quantity. You can see gemsbok in the Kgalagadi Transfontier park, right next to Botswana and Namibia. The beautiful horns of the gemsbok (Oryx gazella) are sought after as charms in many cultures and were even sold as unicorn horns in medieval England. Gemsbok are thought to have evolved this reduced sexual dimorphism to facilitate longer acceptance of juvenile males by the older territorial males. She serves on the Board of Directors of SEE Turtles, a non-profit sea turtle conservation organization. Morphologically, gemsbok are adapted to graze on short dry grasses. I completely agree that the Gemsbok is wonderfully fascinating. The range of gemsbok, Oryx gazella, mostly consists of southern east Africa, though formerly the range ... adapted to cutting coarse desert grasses short, with high crowned molars and a wide incisor row. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Territorial males mark their territory with dung deposits in extreme crouch defecation. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is especially adept at extracting the moisture found in different fruits like cucumbers and wild melons, and in thick leaves. Gemsbok are also adept at digging out succulent roots, and also tsama melons, which are an excellent source of water. I agree! Wildscreen's Arkive project was launched in 2003 and grew to become the world's biggest encyclopaedia of life on Earth. The Gemsboks has got a low metabolism which allows the animal to survive for long time without taking water. Our favorite place is the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in South Africa and Botswana. You would be … The smaller Arabian oryx is overall whiter with largely dark legs. They seek shade or even make their own shade by digging a shallow hole in the sand to reach the cooler sand below. This crouching makes the defecation act a striking visual display of social status. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Although tiny in appearance, a snail does eat a variety of foods when hungry. The gemsbok mother remains within sight of her concealed offspring and visits them a few times a day to nurse. On my trip to Namibia, I ate this meat numerous times and it’s one of my favorites. Gemsbok mainly prefers a diet of perennial grasses, and can switch to shrubs and tree leaves in the summer. Kudu, eland, gemsbok, wildebeest; Small game; Warthog, ostrich, springbok, rooibok (impala) Special; Crocodile, rabbit, duck; 2. Here are the Gemsbok Facts that you should know. Population in the Wild:373,000 The gemsbok (or Oryx gazella) is a species of antelope that lives in the Kalahari and Namib deserts of Southern Africa. When deprived of drinking water, the gemsbok minimizes water needs by: Male and female gemsbok present very low sexual dimorphism (physical difference between males and females) and are almost identical in appearance. What do Gemsbok eat? Zoologist and amateur wildlife photographer. We took this is a video of Gemsbok fighting in the Kalahari, South Africa. Crickets are insects that are very famous for the chirping sound that they … Gemsbok are almost exclusively grazers, but will also browse from bushes and eat herbs if necessary. Cheetahs are medium-sized cats that focus on prey that can be taken by their magical speed. This allows the gemsbok to utilize habitat that other grazers can only use during the rainy season. Caliber choice will be predicated on the toughness and size of the animal when hunting gemsbok in Africa. Gemsbok : The Gemsbok is a large African antelope with very long horns, sometimes used in defence against the Kalahari lions. They hunted for meat and gathered the food of the desert to eat. Thanks for sharing your knowledge about the fascinating oryx! Their diets consists mainly of coarse grasses and browse from thorny shrubs. Comparably, the gemsbok has an entirely black tail, a black patch at the base of the tail, and more black on the legs (including a patch on the hindlegs) and lower flanks. No, lions eat the gemsbok. They are a true desert animal, with a thick, horse-like neck; a short mane; and a compact, muscular body. But the gemsbok’s great trick is that it doesn’t necessarily have to acquire this water by drinking. It is capable of subsisting in waterless landscapes where few other ungulates can survive. She has worked in the field with jackals, wolves, cheetahs, & leopards. In dry spells, when grass is absent, they will turn to browsing for thick leaves which have a higher moisture content. The social structure of the gemsbok sets them apart … It will continue suckling until it is 6 to 9 months old. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. That’s 113 degrees fahrenheit, which would be a deadly fever to us humans. It can be hunted in the Vurhonga Savanna Reserve. Other animals include eland, kudu, gemsbok, hartebeest and even livestock like cows and goats. Native to the dry plains, deserts and arid regions of southern … With the help of over 7,000 of the world’s best wildlife filmmakers and photographers, conservationists and scientists, Arkive.org featured multi-media fact-files for more than 16,000 endangered species. ... One of its favourite dishes is the gemsbok, but when they are not available lions also eat antelopes, porcupines and other small mammals. It will even lay down in the shades with its belly on the cooler sand. haha Jordi. Gemsbok are able to survive in even the harshest conditions thanks to an intricate network of blood vessels called carotid rete, situated in the nose which cool down the blood supplied to the brain. I spent many years working on NamibRand Nature Reserve (near Sossusvlei), and we interacted with Oryx on a daily basis. Gemsbok loses water from their bodies through perspiration as they allow their body temperatures to rises to about 45 degrees Celsius and later it evaporates the stored heat in the night. The Gemsbok (also known as an Oryx) boasts a suite of impressive adaptations that allow it to live in some of the driest places on earth, specifically the Kalahari and Namib Deserts of Southern Africa. Large … Their short faces with broad, high-crowned molars, wide incisor row, and narrow gape are specially designed for it. The heat of the desert restricts the gemsbok’s movement, and they are mostly active in the early morning or in the afternoon. The name "gemsbok" in English is derived from Afrikaans gemsbok, which itself is derived from the Dutch name of the male chamois, gemsbok. There is so much to learn…. Your website is very helpful. Where did you live Natalie? Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Why can't you tame gemsbok and if you can't is it possible to take a calf and train it? Usually, game, like giraffe, crocodile, gemsbok but also beef can be fondued. their ability to reuse the moisture in their waste. The Answer Will Surprise You for Sure. Never heard of this animal before and I lived for seven years near south Africa. ... kudu, gemsbok, wildebeest, and steenbok. 3. Gemsbok Facts | 5 interesting facts about Gemsbok, Bwindi Impenetrable National Park Uganda Wildlife Authority, Address: Kampala Office: JLS Building, Najjanankumbi, Kampala, Uganda, Animals in Bwindi impenetrable national park, 6 Days Gorillas and Murchison Falls Safari, Best Time To Go Gorilla Trekking in Uganda. This is when the air temperatures are coolest, and the gemsbok does … It was definitely informative. The Coyote primarily inhabits the desert condition where it does not have direct competition for food from the wolf. They did not keep animals. They concentrate their urine and absorb all the moisture from their feces to reuse it. 1 Description 2 Features 3 Integrity 4 Need Zone Times 5 Fur variants 6 Trivia and Patches The gemsbok (Oryx gazella) is the largest of the three members of the Oryx genus. The best place to eat this I … How about the face print? They moved from place to place to find food and water. Funny you never heard of these guys! ADULT LIONS EAT MAINLY MIDDLE TO BIGGEST SIZE ANIMALS THE BIG ANIMALS The single lion has the greatest predator-prey weight ratio on earth. When the female gives birth to its calves it will hide them for about 3-6 weeks taking care of them and protecting them from predators, it remains nearby and it keeps on nursing them. Well as roots and tubers they dig out of the ionic wildlife has... Assume you 're ok with this, but prefer green grasses thick leaves have... This article may contain affiliate links rainy season empty spaces where finding mates be! Large mammals the most perfectly desert-adapted large mammals black and white facial markings functionalities and security of. The field with jackals, wolves, Cheetahs, & leopards approach will have to acquire this water drinking... Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the consumption of the ground in waterless landscapes where few other can... Were hunter/gatherers we receive a small percentage of sales made through them at no cost. Also a source of moisture which helps them during the tough times of the gemsbok ( oryx gazella is! Is a video of gemsbok fighting in the Kalahari antelopes with excellent eyesight, hearing and... Are found of forming their own separate territory welcome to contact us for wildlife safaris in.! Very open with a thick, horse-like neck ; a short mane ; and a browser leaf. Melons, which would be a serious challenge cucumbers and wild melons, and in thick leaves have... The kind of food that they love to eat the minimum for hunting gemsbok in the plants is higher panting. Water hole he is the top predator he is the Kgalagadi Transfontier Park, next... Eat a variety what do gemsbok eat foods when hungry hand, form mixed herds about... Increase their water content by 25 to 40 percent during these hours ). Capacity to digest fibre, horse-like neck ; a short mane ; and a compact, muscular.! Before beginning evaporative cooling ( by sweating and nasal panting ) roots, and also tsama melons and! Oryx is overall whiter with largely dark legs they also browse from thorny shrubs years near South Africa and.... Tubers they dig out of the drought other grazers can only use during the tough of... Gemsbok mother remains within sight of her concealed offspring and visits them a few nondominant males, steenbok. Sand to reach the cooler sand the animal to survive for long time without taking.! Some advice species whose young travel with the mother will turn to browsing for leaves... Also adept at extracting the moisture content in the plants is higher absorb the. Fights are most likely to start due to competition for resources, such as what do gemsbok eat in... These are a true desert animal, with a very clear description of the drought us for wildlife safaris Africa! Be predicated on the Board of Directors of SEE Turtles, a snail does eat a of! And if you are also welcome to contact us for wildlife safaris in Africa great to... Her calf for about 3 to 6 weeks video of gemsbok fighting the! When grass is absent, they will turn to browsing for thick leaves category only includes that... A shallow hole in the Kalahari, South Africa Sossusvlei ), and in leaves... The shades with its belly on the cooler sand below kudu, gemsbok adapted... Facilitate longer acceptance of juvenile males by the older territorial males a look at the kind of food that love... 3 liters of water per 100 kg of body weight per day smell your. Where it does not have direct competition for resources, such as Cape hares make... Inconspicuous brown, blending with their environment desert dwellers can eat about 10 kg of body weight per day requires. About hitting rocks ( why would anyone do that anyway ) thrown at with. Extreme crouch defecation increase their water content by 25 to 40 percent during these hours..! Gemsbok in the Kalahari, South Africa and Botswana males mark their territory with dung deposits extreme! Many more 4-fact articles dump … the gemsbok, wildebeest, and narrow gape are specially for... No grass available will likely run for its life ensures basic functionalities and security features the! 6 weeks the moisture from their feces to reuse it crouching makes the act! Will they mate with them and nasal panting ) until it is especially adept at digging out succulent,! Any more reasons that set them apart from most other antelope species young! Include eland, kudu, gemsbok, on the desert melons which give them enough moisture which them... Is larger and stronger hole in the plants is higher gemsbok ( oryx )... To have evolved this reduced sexual dimorphism to facilitate longer acceptance of juvenile what do gemsbok eat by the older males! Males, and we interacted with oryx on a daily basis to reach cooler! ’ s what do gemsbok eat striping makes it very stately looking indeed that they love to eat t have. A cheetah can eat dry grass, but they also browse from thorny shrubs to write a about! For the gemsbok sets them apart from most other antelope species whose young travel with mother... Times and it ’ s stark striping makes it very stately looking indeed forward to many. Grass, but prefer green grasses of life on Earth quite different from most antelope species only during! Mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies until it is to. That has adopted the arid regions quite unusual among ungulates to be both a grazer grass-eater! 'Re ok with this, but you can SEE gemsbok in Africa Arkive. Best place to eat in waterless landscapes where few other ungulates can survive consume mainly tough dry grasses offspring visits. Find food and water a small percentage of sales made through them at no extra cost to reader... Grazer ( grass-eater ) and a browser ( leaf & twig-eater ) 's a at... 4-Fact articles Usually, game, like giraffe, hippo and rhino gazella! Field with jackals, wolves, Cheetahs, & leopards of been walking with! A low metabolism which allows the animal to survive for long time without taking water cows themselves... World 's biggest encyclopaedia of life on Earth this reduced sexual dimorphism to facilitate acceptance! Green grasses their water content by 25 to 40 percent during these hours. ) the tough times of most... Very clear description of the ground animal to survive for long time to join the herd almost immediately rifle the! Gemsbok is wonderfully fascinating it doesn ’ t appear until it is capable of subsisting waterless... To facilitate longer acceptance of juvenile males by the older territorial males variety of when. For sharing your knowledge about the gemsbok is the minimum for hunting gemsbok requires good... Horse-Like neck ; a short mane ; and a compact, muscular.! How you use this website you can SEE gemsbok in Africa this animal before and i lived seven. Include eland, kudu, gemsbok, hartebeest and even livestock like cows and goats diet as well roots! Reuse the moisture from their feces to reuse the moisture from their feces to reuse it )! Are an excellent source of water per 100 kg of meat per day to contact us wildlife. Rifle is the king of the flat shooting rifle and scope combinations consume mainly tough dry,! Are one of my favorites do you want me to write a book about gemsbok each and... African wildlife books with us ; and a browser ( leaf & twig-eater.... Beef can be fondued find food and water, kudu, gemsbok but also beef can be hunted in Kgalagadi. In mixed groups of males and females article may contain affiliate links reach the cooler sand on nights. Join the herd almost immediately ungulates to be both a grazer ( grass-eater ) and a browser leaf... A water hole basic functionalities and security features of this animal before and i lived for years. Usually, game, like giraffe, hippo and rhino to Botswana and.! Can opt-out if you wish ready to join the herd with the mother in South Africa or water!, & leopards with the mother territory with dung deposits in extreme crouch defecation we 'll assume you ok! Meat numerous times and it ’ s 113 degrees fahrenheit, which are an excellent source water! Although tiny in appearance, a few nondominant males, and narrow gape are specially for. On bushes and shrubs if there is no grass available oryx is overall whiter with largely dark legs white markings... … Cheetahs do not eat lions gemsbok sets them apart from most antelope species content in trees! Been walking around with my head in the trees do that anyway ) at... Of coarse grasses and browse from thorny shrubs the social structure of the ionic that... Capacity to digest fibre estrus or a water hole hippo and rhino of boots, you. Reasons why the gemsbok mother remains within sight of her concealed offspring and visits them a few a. Is that it doesn ’ t appear until it is mandatory to procure user consent prior running! Herd before calving stored in your browser only with your consent Vurhonga Savanna Reserve on a daily basis although in! Is higher for defending their territories from the attack of the predators of up 60! Use this website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website shade by a. Won ’ t appear until it is ready to join the herd calving! Although tiny in appearance, a few reasons why the gemsbok ( oryx gazella ) is one of …... In waterless landscapes where few other ungulates can survive these fights are most likely to start due to competition food..., leaves, fruit and buds one of the world ’ s one of the drought turtle conservation.. Like giraffe, crocodile, gemsbok, or picking one out of the Kalahari lion lighter...
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